Friday, September 20, 2019

The availability of International Business opportunities in Uzbekistan

The availability of International Business opportunities in Uzbekistan International trade is exchange of goods, services and capital across the borders of different nations. No country in the world has all the natural resources present in sufficient quantity to sustain continuous development. So the countries trade with each other by exporting those goods or products which they have in abundance while importing those which they are deficient in. International trade tends to be generally more costlier than domestic as most countries imposes additional tariffs or duties on the goods travelling through their borders. International trade between two countries comprises both the trade between 2 companies present in different country and trade between the government of a country and the business firm present in other country. The main objective of this audit is to analyze the availability of International Business opportunities present in the Uzbekistan. The report starts with examining the countrys attitude to international trade. Then a brief analysis of the countrys Cultural, Political and Economic Environments is done. After that the countrys business environment is analysed using some of the proposed theories of international trade and also Porters diamond model of national competitiveness. Finally recommendations based on the above analysis are offered. An Overview of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan or Republic of Uzbekistan (Ozbekiston Respublikasi) is a country which is part of Central Asia having largest population within the region. Uzbekistan became an independent state on September 1, 1991, from former Soviet Union. Uzbekistan elected Islom Karimov as its president who continues his office till date. Uzbekistan is a land locked country surrounded by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Uzbekistan Essential Facts: Government Republic; Authoritarian Presidential Rule Capital Tashkent Geographic Area 447,400 sq km Population 27,865,738 Literacy Rate 99.3% Labour Division Agriculture: 44%, Industry: 20%, Services: 36% Budget Revenue: 10.54 Billion, Expenditure: 10.48 Billion (2009 estimates) GDP (GDP Growth) $77.55 Billion (6.7%) GDP Per Capita $2,800 Inflation 14.1% Industries Textiles, Food Processing, Machine Building, Metallurgy, Gold, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Chemicals Source: CIA World Fact Book (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uz.html) Uzbekistan attitude to International Trade Uzbekistan joined United Nations in 1992 as fully fledged member and cooperates with 8 UN agencies including The World Bank which supports Uzbekistan in its national reform efforts (United Nations, n.d.). Currently Uzbekistan has foreign diplomatic relations with about 124 countries of the world (Ministry of Foreign Affairs Uzbekistan, n.d.). Uzbekistan has membership in numerous, more than 33, International Organizations including Asian Development Bank (ADB), Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), International Finance Corporation, International Monetary Fund, Islamic Development Bank, Shanghai Cooperation Organization and World Trade Organization (observer status) (Library of Congress, 2007). The main purpose of these organizations is to promote and facilitate international trade among various countries. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries are the biggest trade partners of Uzbekistan. Russian secures first place as foreign trade partner of Uzbekistan. Other countries like Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Afghanistan etc. are also heavy trade partners. Uzbekistan has very active trade relations with European Union. Bilateral trade between Germany and Uzbekistan amounted to 470 million USD in 2008. France, UK and Spain are other major trade partners (Ministry of Foreign Affairs Uzbekistan, n.d.). Figure 1: Major Trade Partners of Uzbekistan (2009) Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_6613529.pdf Business Environment of Uzbekistan Culture of Uzbekistan Figure 2: Ethnic Group Composition Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uz.html Figure 3: Major Religions Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uz.html Figure 4: Spoken Languages Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uz.html Uzbekistan since ancient time was the home of Arab Muslims and Turks. And then in Mid-Nineteenth century, Russia seeing the regions potential captured Uzbekistan. That is why there are traces of Russian language and ethnicity can be found in the country dominated by Uzbeks. Islam being the major religion (about 88%) the culture of country is bit conservative. For both Men and Women conservative business suits are expected, casual clothes like jeans, t-shirts etc are considered inappropriate. While greeting someone it is common for handshake between same sexes but simple hello is done between opposite sex. During a meeting it is important to go and speak to the most important person in the room first. These local customs must be observed in order to forge good business relationship in the country (Culture Crossings, n.d.). Political Civil Environment of Uzbekistan When Soviet Union broke in 1991, Uzbekistan gained its independence and appointed Islom Karimov as the Presidential head (Angus Reid Public Opinion, 2008). Since then Karimov have led an autocratic rule by extending his term of office in 2000 and 2007 in a series of democratic election that has come into fierce criticism from the international community (Harding, 2007). Next elections are scheduled to be held in 2014. In almost all international political and civil parameters Uzbekistan has shown downward trends indicating its worsening of the situation overtime. Figure 5: Uzbekistan Political Indicators. Source: Author Uzbekistan also has extremely high level of corruption. According to recent Transparency Internationals Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Uzbekistan ranks among the bottom of the 180 countries at rank 174. It has extremely poor confidence range of 1.5 1.8 (Transperency International, 2009). Figure 6: CPI Index 2009 Source: http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009 Due to this firms frequently have to pay informal payments (bribes) to government to get the things done. About 67% percent of the firms are expected to make these payments to get things done (Enterprise Surveys, 2009). Figure 7: Informal Payments Statistics Source: http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/documents/CountryNotes/Uzbekistan_09.pdf Economic Structure of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan when it got freedom had relatively slow economic growth rate for first 12 years. Uzbekistan GDP, between 1994 to 2003, grew at average rate of 3.9% per year. But from 2005 onwards the country witnessed average growth of 8.2% (Asian Development Bank, 2010). Although the official data is doubtful as it probably overstates the level of economic growth. The U.S. Department of State Background Note for Uzbekistan states that many observers believe that employment growth and real wage growth have been stagnant (U.S. Department of State Background Notes, 2009). The poverty is quite prevalent in the country with 76.7% of population living below $2 a day (United Nations Development Programme, 2009). Although government is taking some positive steps to ramp up the economy. Policies like Anti-Crisis Program for 2009-2012 that government adopted in 2008 to combat the global recession had quite beneficial impact on Uzbekistan economy. Part of the policy was to promote foreign investment, for which government established free industrial economic zones in 2008, which provided foreign investors with tax and custom preferential facilities. Due to this government was able to tie up with 37 foreign investors for $500 million investment. This resulted in huge increase of 80% in foreign investment in 2009. Uzbekistan also observed very high import growth rate of 25.8% in 2009, mainly in infrastructure development, indicates governments acceptance to allow foreign investment in the country (Asian Development Bank, 2010). Figure 8: Uzbekistan Import/Export Indicators Source: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2010/UZB.pdf Petroleum, Gold, Natural Gas and Cotton are the main 4 exports products of the Uzbekistan. According to the IMF estimations, energy products (Petroleum and Natural Gas) comprised about 26.3% of total exports in 2008 followed by gold at 15.7% and cotton at 13.1% (International Monetary Fund, 2008). International Trade of Uzbekistan International Trade Theory Framework is all about analysing from a countrys perspective about with whom they should trade and what products to trade. According to Daniels, Radebaugh and Sullivan (2010), there are five theories which try to explain a countrys advantage in International Trade. Figure 9: Theories of International Trade The advantage in international trade of Uzbekistan will be explained using two theories Natural Advantage and Factor Proportion Theory. Natural Advantage in case of Uzbekistan According to this theory a country produces those goods in which it has some natural advantage by way of its climate, people, resources etc. Uzbekistan has substantial advantage over most of the countries in the world in production of cotton due to favourable climatic conditions and availability of low cost labour. Climate in Uzbekistan is generally hot which is suitable for cotton growth. Hence Uzbekistan is the worlds 6th largest Cotton producer and 3rd largest Cotton exporter (National Cotton Council of America, 2010). Figure 10: World Cotton Export Rankings (2009) Source: Author Also the country has abundant energy resources. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of Natural gas. Natural gas production was 2,387 billion cubic feet in 2008 ranking it at 14th place in the world. Out of this Uzbekistan exported about 22.20%, i.e. 530 bcf of natural gas (US Energy Information Administration, 2010). Factor Proportion Theory According to this theory different countries have different level of endowment of land, labour and capital. And the factor which is in more abundance will have lower costs than other factors. So the country tends to take advantage of this in the international trade by exporting those products that utilize the abundant factor and importing products that requires utilization of deficient factor. Uzbekistan has the advantage of low cost and skilled labour. It also has relatively low land. The country has very high literacy rate of 99.3% in 2003. There is lack of substantial capital or high level technology present in the country. Therefore Uzbekistans export mainly comprises of agricultural products, mined natural resources, services or low tech industrial products like chemical, plastic etc. Figure 11: Percentage Distribution of Total Exports Source: http://www.statistics.uz/data_finder/128/ On the other hand the country is severely lacking in the modern infrastructure and necessary technology or capital required to develop it. Therefore the bulk of its import, almost 50% comprised mainly of machinery and equipments. Figure 12: Percentage Distribution of Total Imports Source: http://www.statistics.uz/data_finder/128/ Porters Diamond of National Competitiveness Figure 13: Extended Porters Diamond Model of National Competitiveness Source: Porter (1990) Michael Porter introduced a diamond shaped model to analyze the areas of strength or weakness that gives a country a competitive advantage or disadvantage. This model includes four interconnected key elements: Figure 14: Key elements of Porters Diamond Factor Conditions: Uzbekistan has inconsistent infrastructure development. Main roads in the capital Tashkent and other major cities are relatively maintained outside the cities their conditions are poor. Suppliers have trouble in transporting goods from one place to another. The country has extensive rail network but only 17% is electrified. Although government recently announced big plans to improve both its national highway and rail network. Literacy in the country is very high at 99.3% for 15 years and up. The country also has abundant energy resources. The country is able to almost meet its coal requirement and produces enough natural gas that it manages to export 22% of it. Firm Strategy or Rivalry: Almost all the Industrial firms in the Uzbekistan are government owned and as such there is little to no competition among them. There are only few industries like energy, gold, foodstuff etc. present in the country which have some foreign investment. Most foreign investing companies are only allowed to invest by creating joint venture with state owned company in which the government owns majority stakes. Related and Supporting Industries: One of the most important supporting industry to establish a firm is financial sector which is seriously underdeveloped in Uzbekistan. It is dominated by state-owned banks and lacks competition. The government banks give loans to state owned companies at subsidized rate and for all else the interest rate is very high. Due to this private investors rarely take loans from local credit market. The whole country has access to electricity but the infrastructure is quite old and need modernizations. And as such there are frequent power outages. Demand Conditions: Due to widespread poverty of 76.7% there is not much demand of products apart from basic need like food, clothes, energy needs etc. And in these basic need the country is self-sufficient hence demand never exceeds supply. The government of Uzbekistan is the major importer of goods and services. Most of the imports comprises of equipments in energy, telecommunication and Information Technology hardware and software. Role of Government The government did not liberalise the economy sufficiently enough since freedom. It owns all major companies, strictly regulates foreign trade and follows the policy of import substitution. Monopolistic environment created by state-owned companies stifle the development of private sector. Recommendations for Uzbekistan The following are the recommendations the Uzbekistan government should implement for sustained growth of the country: Improving Business Climate: Government should stop pursuing the policy of import substitution and make it easier for foreign investment to invest in the country. Sustaining Macroeconomic Stability: Need improved macroeconomic policies to control inflation, eliminate restrictions on currency conversion, better regulation of financial sector would help in maintaining high economic growth rates. Boosting Agriculture Productivity: Better agricultural reforms, abolition of state dictated crop production, more power to farmers and investment in modern machinery would raise per capita income and reduce poverty. Improve Accountability and Transparency: The country ranks very poor in Transparency International Index at 174 of 180 nations. Corruption is rampant and Firms are frequently subjected to pay bribes. The government must put efforts in improving transparency for the firms to have any confidence in doing business in the country. Promote Open Competition: Government should end the policy of controlling all industries and creating monopolistic environment. Government should allow free control of industries by private sector. This will create more competition, promote innovation and would improve overall efficiency of the industries and boost economy.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Atacama Desert Essay -- Chile Geography

The Atacama Desert Abstract Exclusive of the largest mountain ranges and oceans, earth’s most well-known physical features are its great desert regions. The word desert often conjures up ideas of open expanses of sand and towering dunes blown by perpetual wind and dust storms. Moreover, deserts are often categorized as being strictly sandy, hot, and extremely dry. Only part of this assumption is correct. Furthermore, the categorizing of deserts as such illustrates how little knowledge many people in fact have of desert regions of the earth. The notion that all deserts are hot and sandy is especially erroneous. The surrounding landforms, air temperature, and soil composition have no bearing on whether or not a climate region is classified as a dessert. The sole characteristic used in classifying climate regions as a desert is aridity; a lack of moisture (Cressy 390). Deserts can be defined as regions where less than 10 inches of liquid equivalent precipitation falls each year. A better definition is any climatic region where evaporation substantially exceeds precipitation for most of the year (Cressey 390). Thus, based on this definition it is clear that deserts are not regulated to hot low latitude regions of the earth. Deserts are found at all latitudes, and encompass all air temperature ranges found on earth. Deserts types range from hot hyper-arid deserts such as the Sahara to less known and rather unusual cool coastal deserts such as the Atacama. Although the Atacama does embody hyper-arid characteristics, the Atacama Desert is generally classified as a cool coastal desert. The remainder of this paper will focus specifically on the physical characteristics of the Atacama Desert. Topography Located in northern Chile... ...tley, Adrian J. â€Å"150 million years of climatic stability: evidence from the Atacama Desert, northern Chile.† Journal of the Geological Society 162.3 (2005):421-. Kampf, Stephanie K. "Evaporation and land surface energy budget at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile." Journal of Hydrology 310.1-4 (2005):236-. Lamb, Simon. â€Å"Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes.† Nature 425.6960 (2003):792-. Light, Mary. â€Å"Atacama Revisited: â€Å"Desert Trails† Seen from the Air.† Geographical Review 36.4 (1946):525-545. Mooney. â€Å"Atmospheric Water Uptake by an Atacama Desert Shrub.† Science 209.4457 (1980):693-694. Oppenheimer, Robert. "National Capital and National Development: Financing Chile." The Business History Review 56.1 (1982):54-75. Rudolph, William. â€Å"The Rio Loa of Northern Chile.† Geographical Review 17.4 (1927):553-585.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Aztec and Inca Religious Zeal Essay -- Pre-Colombian History

Aztec and Inca Religious Zeal   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Aztec and Inca peoples lived in militaristic and expansionist societies whose ideals were fueled by their religious convictions. Expansionism was necessary for both societies to support their religious beliefs. The religious zeal of these two civilizations became something that the leaders of the empires could not control. These empires were built through ideologically driven conquests, which became the cornerstones of their societies and something beyond the control of the rulers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Every imperialistic nation has a motive for expansion. Military, materialism, and missionary are three of the biggest motives foe expansion that imperialistic countries use to expand their borders. Conquests that are based strictly on militaristic or materialistic goals make up long-lasting empires that rule for centuries without decline. These two motives require that some semblance of a government be set up in conquered territories so that the ruling country may use these territories as they wish. Furthermore, once these types of conquests are started, emperors are able to stop them as they wish. Ideological conquests, however, are driven by deep-down religious convictions that emperors and rulers have little power over. Furthermore, conquests that are driven by ideologies do not require the conquerors to establish working governments in their wakes. Therefore, imperial land-holdings that were acquired through ideologically driven conquests sometimes require re- conquering.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Aztec and Inca empires were built through various ideologically driven conquests, which became ingrained in their societies and grew beyond the emperors’ control. The Aztec’s expansion was promoted by their need for human sacrifices in order to keep the world working in the proper order. The Mexica people’s, who founded the Aztec empire, rise in power coincided with their tribal god’s, Huitzilopochtli, rise in the pantheon of gods to one of the creator gods (Bakewell, 23). The further Huitzilopochtli rose in the pantheon the more sacrifices were needed to keep the universal balance. The Mexica people inherited the use of human sacrifices from their predecessors, the Toltecs, but Huitzilopochtli was a Mexica creation. Mexica imperialism was due to â€Å"the elevation of Huitzilopochtli and the formulation of an imperial cult that united the patron deity, ... ...bility and support ended up ruining their empire. Split inheritance was so ingrained in Inca society that it took on a life of its own and could not be stopped by anyone. In the minds of the Incas the short-term benefits of the split inheritance system far out-weighed the long-term detriments of which they arguably were not aware. Both the Incas and the Aztecs were part of empires that were built by religious ideologies that required the expansion of a state. These ideologies had similar benefits like a better after-life, material riches, and social mobility, and similar disadvantages. The disadvantages included not allowing for government of conquered territories and over-extending each empire’s sphere of influence to the point that political stability was impossible. Each society had a potential savior of the empire in the end, but the religious ideologies of the people were far too strong for any emperor to oppose. Works Cited Bakewell, Peter. A History of Latin America. Blackwell Publishers Inc., Malden, MA. 1998 Conrad, Geoffrey W. and Demarest, Arthur A. Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansion. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY. 1984

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Michael Smyth vs. Pillsbury Company. Essay

STYLE: Michael Smyth vs. Pillsbury Company. COURT: United States District Court of Pennsylvania. CITATION: 914 F. Supp. 97; 1996 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 776; 131 Lab. Cas. (CCH) P58, 104; 11 I.E.R. Cas. (BNA) 585. ISSUE: Can an employer be accused of violating public policy, tortuously invading privacy and subsequently be estopped from firing or discharging an at will employee, if for the purpose of company’s interest, it monitor an employee’s email communications over the company’s email system just to find them contrary to company’s interest? FACTS: Plaintiff, a manager at defendant’s company had work email account with access from home. Plaintiff was assured by defendant that email communication is private and confidential with no messages being intercepted and used employment termination. Plaintiff in reliance to promise to its detriment used work email system to make threatening email comments with supervisor was intercepted and employment was terminated. Court ruled in favor of Defendant as it was not evident if termination threatened or violated a clear mandate of public policy or Plaintiff’s common law right to privacy. HOLDING: An employer cannot be accused for violating public policy, privacy and/or discharging an employee according to restatement definition of tort of intrusion upon seclusion. LAW: Restatement (Second) of Torts  § 652B: Liability only attaches when the â€Å"intrusion is substantial and would be highly offensive to the ‘ordinary. â€Å"Unless an employee identifies a ‘specific’ expression of public policy violated by his discharge, it will not be labelled as wrongful and within the sphere of public policy†. EXPLANATION: The clear mandate of public policy must strike at the heart of a citizen’s social right, duties and responsibilities. Plaintiff was not fired for serving on jury duty, for prior conviction or for reporting violation of federal regulations to NRC. Plaintiff’s alleged unprofessional communication over email system utilized by entire company diminishes expectation of privacy. Plaintiff was not asked to disclose personal information by defendant. JUDGEMENT: The motion of the defendant to dismiss was granted. The complaint was dismissed with prejudice

Monday, September 16, 2019

Critical Evaluation

The purpose in writing my critical evaluation essay is to do any analysis of a writer's point of view. In addition, it is to do an evaluation of the author's message. That is, what is the thesis or key idea the author was trying to get across. I will explore the writer's arguments that were offered to prove the focal idea and a summary of the author's solutions for action. It is my hope, with the critical evaluation, that l, along with the readers of my essay, will discover whether the author provided appropriate evidential support and the effectiveness of it.I also pop to provide some new insight and understanding to a topic that is so important to our history. This assignment allowed me to research a topic that is so important to our history. I was greatly intrigued that a group of atomic scientists who were responsible for creating such a meaner of destruction were pleading to halt the use of the atomic bomb against Japan. Not only through the course of my critical evaluation did I learn more about the events that led up to the bombing of Japan, I developed an understanding of the struggles between science, politics, and moral obligation and consequences.Moreover, to believe that if this plea could have been written in a different way, it could have affected the course of history. The difficulties I encountered during this writing assignment were ensuring I evaluated it in a logical manner, free from emotion due to the impact it had on our history. I attempted throughout the process, to perform research of the topic and make myself more knowledgeable of the events that led up to the petition and what took place after. I also had to ensure that while doing a critical evaluation off topic does not mean to be negative.But rather, it meaner being objective and well- informed. I enjoyed this assignment because it allowed me to revisit a topic in history that had such a huge impact. Although, I was aware of the author and who he was, I was not aware of the importa nce of this petition and how it could have changed the course of history. This assignment allowed me to evaluate an important part of history, pose and challenge questions about the topic, and see the strengths and weaknesses of a particular point of view.The article I chose is Leo Galliard's â€Å"Petition to the President†. As I stated previously, I chose this essay because of its huge impact on history, the struggle teen moral obligation and politics, and how the history course of events could have been altered had this article been written differently. Furthermore, with this article, it was easy for me to see the use of ethos versus pathos and the implications of the author's writing style.Michael Martinez Professor Shields ENGLE 102 Effectiveness in Writing 24 May 2013 In 1945, when it became public that the Truman administration planned on using atomic bombs against Japan, a group of scientists, many who had worked on the project, decided to protest. Led by Leo Sailor, a petition was written to the president or his fellow scientists to consider. It asked the President â€Å"to rule that the United States shall not, in the present phase of the war, resort to the use of atomic bombs† (Sailor, par. 1).Galliard's arguments expressed in the petition lacked the strength and persuasion needed to convince the President that the use of the atomic bomb against Japan was unjustifiable due to the lack of facts presented, the numerous fallacies found within the writing, and the failure to express the weight that their arguments held in the decision. In Leo Galliard's petition to the President, the author repeatedly utilizes the appeal f pathos, expressing the ideas in a way that invokes emotion and feelings from the audience, particularly the president. Galliard's states: Atomic power will provide the nations with new meaner of destruction.The atomic bombs at our disposal represent only the first step in this direction and there is almost no limit to th e destructive power which will become available in the course of this development. Thus a nation which sets the precedent of using these newly liberated forces of nature for purposes of destruction may have to bear the responsibility of peeing the door to an era of devastation on an unimaginable scale (Sailor, par. 5). Here, Sailor was trying to describe to the President that the results of using the atomic bomb would not only affect Japan, but ultimately the United States.Not only would the United States have to bear responsibility of having unleashed this atomic power, she would feel the effects of it when it would be used, inevitably, against other countries in the future. The author's overuse of pathos made his appeal less convincing and failed to convince President Truman that the use of atomic bombs against Japan was unwarranted. If Sailor had appealed to the President with the use of ethos, it would have made a more successful petition and proven his credibility as an expert. The lack of facts presented and the failure to express the weight that their arguments held weakened their petition. For example, as creators of the atomic bomb, they were aware of the specific catastrophic effects, including radiation poisoning. This is information that only the scientists knew and excluding it created a huge defect in their petition. A petition based on the scientist's logic and expertise would have proven far more effective. Excluding critical information that only the scientists knew should have been used as the main incentive to persuade the President.Not addressing the fact that it was them who created the atomic bomb and they knew of its enormous destruction capabilities, was a key point that should have been addressed. The petitioner's recurring use of pathos and pleas of emotion and moral obligation diverted the logical truths of their arguments. A factual representation of the have ultimately changed the course of history. Leo Sailor and his fellow co-sign ers did not prevent the bombings of Hiroshima ND Nagasaki, thus, proving that the arguments of the scientists failed to hold the strength needed to prevent the world's first nuclear catastrophe.The choice of words and main points could have been more powerful. A more dramatic impact might have changed the way history played out. If the scientists would have gone about the bombings in complete opposition rather than attempting to dictate policy, they might have been successful. Works Cited Sailor, Leo and Cosigners. â€Å"A Petition to the President of the United States. † Authenticator. Com. 2011. Web. 11 May 2012.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Cultural Considerations in Moral and Ethical Reasoning

Cultural considerations in moral and ethical reasoning The sound development of moral reasoning and ethics is an integral part of the growth and maturation of a healthy and productive human being. Without morals and ethics, a person cannot exist within society’s boundaries and would be doomed to be forever barred from its hallowed walls for as long as that person did not conform to the societal norms of having the ability to morally reason and implement a set of ethics. But morals and ethics, as necessary as they are, are relative and not absolute (Brink, 1989).This means that what a particular society constitutes as moral behavior is actually very much like beauty and in the eye of the beholder. The society in which an individual grows up in and is a member of dictates the type of societal rules that must be accepted as part of the price of membership. However, it does not take into account the various cultural differences that must affect which ethics and morals are adhered to in a particular place. Ethics are generally defined as the principles of morally acceptable conduct of individuals, and a person’s belief about right and wrong behaviors (Cosmides & Tooby, 2004).It is evident however, that the difference in cultures around the world make it quite clear that moral reasoning and ethics are directly influenced by the cultures in which they are developed (Boyd & Richerson, 2005). Behavior that is unacceptable in the U. S. is perfectly acceptable elsewhere in the world. For example, polygamy is accepted in most African societies, and even encouraged, but in the U. S. it is not only considered morally reprehensible, but also criminal. Homosexuality is accepted and even celebrated in the U. S. et woe betides the person trying to engage in this behavior in the Middle East, where it is considered a moral abomination (Haidt & Hersh, 2001). It is clear that there is no universal standard for moral reasoning not with culture, religion, and even environment playing roles in how it will occur (Wright, 1994).Therefore, it is of utmost importance to teach developing humans how to evaluate critically their own views on morality and that of others in order to preserve a balance in their world view no matter where they are. They must be taught an openness that allows for them to discuss omfortably moral matters with many types of people in order to gain a clearer picture of the world. By honing reasoning skills one can better evaluate ethical and moral statements or judgments (Gigerenzer & Goldstein, 1996) and this will help to describe the negatives and the positives of a situation and ultimately take us a step closer to understanding our world and the various subsets of which it is made up of.References Boyd R. , & Richerson, P. J. (2005). The origin and evolution of cultures. New York: Oxford University Press. Brink, D. (1989). Moral realism and the foundations of ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Co smides, L. , & Tooby, J. (2000). Knowing thyself: The evolutionary psychology of moral reasoning and moral sentiments. Unpublished manuscript. Gigerenzer, G. (2004). Fast and frugal heuristics: The tools of bounded rationality. In D. Koehler & N. Harvey (Eds), Handbook of judgment and decision making (pp. 62-68). Oxford: Blackwell. Haidt, J. , &Joseph, C. (2004). Sexual morality: The cultures and reasons of liberals and conservatives. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31 191-221. Wright, R. (1994). The moral animal: Why we are the way we are. New York: Pantheon.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Online Learning V.S Traditional Classroom Learning

I think whether it is online learning or traditional class learning both should be taken into consideration when planning to further education. I personally did not consider the facts when I decided to further my education. I had started out in a traditional classroom but soon after realized it was not the right choice. It was hard to fully apply myself when I was attending a traditional classroom because I was a working wife and mother. Online learning and traditional learning will show that both of these are great options depending on who the student may be and which educational program the student has chosen. Online learning and traditional learning each have their merits and faults. Online degrees have become a perfect option for individuals who may not be able to enroll in a traditional classroom. When you compare the two learning classes, the biggest difference is that students studying online have the flexibility to attend classes at their own pace and time. In a campus-based classroom they require that students attend class a certain number of times every week, at specific times. Traditional class learning may not be the option for people who have children or work long hours. Learning online would be a better option for these people because they can make their own schedule for when they will attend class. Both online and traditional classes give students the opportunity to interact with other students and their professors. With a traditional classroom you can interact with students and professors face -to -face. In online learning there is no face- to -face interaction with classmates or instructors. Online learning interaction can consist of chat rooms, e-mail, main forums, and over the telephone. Traditional class students have a better advantage of understanding the materials because they can have that one –on- one time with the instructor face- to -face. It may be a little harder for online students to grasp the materials because they do not have that face- to -face interaction. Online learning and traditional class learning work assignments are similar and different in their own ways. In both online and traditional learning classes you still have assignments that have to be completed by a certain time. In the traditional class your assignments are done on paper and with online learning you have to submit your assignments on the computer. Also with traditional class learning one has the opportunity to present in front of their classmates, while online students do not have that option. They are only able to present their presentations to the instructors. In both classes you still have homework and you have to participate in class. Online learning requires you to participate and attend class a certain number of times but there is no specific times or days. They have the option to decide when that will be but with traditional class you have to attend class every day you are scheduled and participate every day. Earning a degree at a traditional college can be very expensive but obtaining a online degree can be a lot less expensive for students. Exceptionally less, but they offer students the same loan and grant benefits offered at a traditional college. Online schools and traditional schools offer the same financial aid packages. Students who attend a traditional class usually have to pay traveling cost and living cost. Online learning students do not have to pay these extra costs because they are learning from home and that requires no traveling. Also with online schools you do not have to pay for facilities like residence halls, dining halls, gyms and libraries. Most provide access to virtual libraries and some even have partnerships with local facilities. There are many similarities and differences between online learning and traditional class learning. The facts show that both are great options to consider, depending upon the person and his or her day- to- day schedule. One method to determine how well online learning and traditional class learning might work for you is to consider the benefits and disadvantages of both. Researching and planning ahead can help a person in deciding which would better fit his or her needs. I have found online learning to better fit my needs because I can make my own schedule concerning attending class. I am a mother and wife so I have many responsibilities and this option gives me time to take care of my household while still being able to obtain a degree at my own pace. Do the research to see which one is the right option for you at this time in your life. Most people think that their decision to go to college only affects them but it affects your family also. You have to still be able to do for your family and handle your business at home. I also suggest if you are attending a traditional college and it seems to be too overwhelming for you at times you should really consider trying the online learning. Becoming successful in life depends on the choices you make throughout life, whether they be good or bad choices. So choose wisely which learning class be it online learning or traditional learning is right for you and your family.